Malak Alghamdi, Fahad A. Bashiri, Marwa Abdelhakim, Nouran Adly, Dima Z. Jamjoom, Khalid M. Sumaily, Bandar Alghanem, Stefan T. Arold
Clinical Genetics, (2020)
PLP; PNPO; neonatal epileptic encephalopathy; seizures; vitamin-response epilepsy
Pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency is an autosomal recessive pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-vitamin-responsive epileptic encephalopathy. The emerging feature of PNPO deficiency is the occurrence of refractory seizures in the first year of life. Pre-maturity and fetal distress, combined with neonatal seizures, are other associated key characteristics. The phenotype results from a dependency of PLP which regulates several enzymes in the body. We present the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of (PNPO) deficiency based on a literature review (2002-2020) of reports (n = 33) of patients with confirmed PNPO deficiency (n = 87). All patients who received PLP (n = 36) showed a clinical response, with a complete dramatic PLP response with seizure cessation observed in 61% of patients. In spite of effective seizure control with PLP, approximately 56% of patients affected with PLP-dependent epilepsy suffer developmental delay/intellectual disability. There is no diagnostic biomarker, and molecular testing required for diagnosis. However, we noted that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PLP was low in 81%, CSF glycine was high in 80% and urinary vanillactic acid was high in 91% of the cases. We observed only a weak correlation between the severity of PNPO protein disruption and disease outcomes, indicating the importance of other factors, including seizure onset and time of therapy initiation. We found that pre-maturity, the delay in initiation of PLP therapy and early onset of seizures correlate with a poor neurocognitive outcome. Given the amenability of PNPO to PLP therapy for seizure control, early diagnosis is essential.