F.S. Shaikh, H.F. Mazo‐Mantilla, N. Qaiser, S.M. Khan, J.M. Nassar, N.R. Geraldi, C.M. Duarte, M.M. Hussain
Small, volume 15, issue 10, (2019)
Flexible sensors, Hybrid integration, Marine ecology, Noninvasive tag, Soft packaging
Advances in marine research to understand environmental change and its effect on marine ecosystems rely on gathering data on species physiology, their habitat, and their mobility patterns using heavy and invasive biologgers and sensory telemetric networks. In the past, a lightweight (6 g) compliant environmental monitoring system: Marine Skin was demonstrated. In this paper, an enhanced version of that skin with improved functionalities (500–1500% enhanced sensitivity), packaging, and most importantly its endurance at a depth of 2 km in the highly saline Red Sea water for four consecutive weeks is reported. A unique noninvasive approach for attachment of the sensor by designing a wearable, stretchable jacket (bracelet) that can adhere to any species irrespective of their skin type is also illustrated. The wearable featherlight (<0.5 g in air, 3 g with jacket) gadget is deployed on Barramundi, Seabream, and common goldfish to demonstrate the noninvasive and effective attachment strategy on different species of variable sizes which does not hinder the animals' natural movement or behavior.