Energy is required for all living organisms to perform significant functions such as making proteins, growth and repair of tissues and cells. Recently, lactate has shown to be highly important component in brain energy metabolism; in particular, learning and memory formation (cell, PNAS). Interestingly, the ability of producing lactate is not restricted on animals but also microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi can release lactate through a biological process known as lactic acid fermentation. My research interest is to understand the evolutionary history of lactate- mediated neural plasticity genes in brain. Bioinformatics analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic data, domains, and motif detection is conducted to examine genes involved in the lactated related neural plasticity. Also, I am using several of bioinformatics tools to analyze the data.